Antibacterial activities were measured using a liquid-growth inhibition assay as described previously. Briefly, 10 uL from 2-fold serial dilutions of the peptides (100-0.2 uM, final concentrations) were incubated in 96-wells microtiter plates with a starting OD600 of 0.001. After a 24 h incubation at 25 C, the antibacterial activity was monitored by measuring the culture absorbance at 595 nm using a microplate reader. The antifungal activity against N. crassa used liquid-growth inhibition assay. Briefly, fungal spores (final concentration of 10-4 spores/mL) were suspended in a growth medium containing Potato Dextrose Broth [DIFCO, in half-strength, supplemented with tetracycline (10ug/mL) and cefotaxim (100ug/mL)], dispensed by aliquots of 90 uL into wells of a microplate containing 10 uL of the serial dilution of the peptides, and incubated for 48 h at 25 C in the dark. Growth of fungi was evaluated as above. Positive controls were obtained using insect antimicrobial peptides (thanatin and androctonin).